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阿尔兹海默症生物标志物和早期诊断新技术
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作者单位
李莹,钱美齐,邱雪 1. 中国海洋大学 海洋药物教育部重点实验室医药学院山东 青岛 2660032. 青岛海洋科学与技术试点 国家实验室海洋药物与生物制品功能实验室山东 青岛 266237 
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(82104120)
中文摘要:阿尔兹海默症是当今世界面临的最严重的神经退行性疾病之一。阿尔兹海默症患者的大脑表现出两种主要的神经病理改变:老年斑和神经纤维缠结,其典型临床症状包括记忆丧失、情绪改变、认知能力下降、说话、写作、行走困难等。阿尔兹海默症的早期诊断对通过早期干预策略延缓疾病或改变疾病进程甚至预防疾病都至关重要。该文综述了与阿尔兹海默症相关的蛋白、基因、miRNA、补体系统、激肽系统以及金属离子等生物标志物,总结了现阶段阿尔兹海默症的临床诊断方法和检测试剂盒。由于目前临床诊断方法的有创性和高昂的费用,迫切需要简单快速、创伤性小的分子诊断技术。该文列举了基于免疫反应、荧光、探针成像、电化学、纳米材料和miRNA等发展的新型检测技术,这些分析手段为阿尔兹海默症的早期诊断提供了强有力的技术支持。
中文关键词:阿尔兹海默症  ?β-淀粉样蛋白  ?tau蛋白  ?新型生物标志物  ?分子诊断
 
Biomarkers and Early Diagnostics of Alzheimer's Disease
Abstract:Alzheimer's disease is one of the most serious neurodegenerative diseases in the world.The brain of Alzheimer's patient after death showed two main neuropathological changes,i.e. senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles,while the typical clinical symptoms of Alzheimer's disease include memory loss,mood swings,cognitive decline,and difficulty in speaking,writing and walking.Early diagnosis is essential for the prevention or treatment of Alzheimer's disease by introducing proper intervention.Biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease such as proteins,genes,miRNAs,complement system,kinin system and metal ions are reviewed in this paper,and the current clinical diagnostic methods and kits for Alzheimer's disease are also summarized.There is an urgent need to develop simple,rapid,and less invasive diagnostic techniques due to the invasion and high cost of the current methods.Meanwhile,the novel emerging detection methods based on immunoassay,fluorescence,bio-imaging,electrochemistry,nanotechnology and miRNAs are also presented,which have pushed forward the way of early diagnostics of Alzheimer's disease.
Key Words:Alzheimer's disease  ?amyloid?β-protein  ?tau protein  ?novel biomarkers  ?molecular diagnostics
引用本文:李莹,钱美齐,邱雪.阿尔兹海默症生物标志物和早期诊断新技术[J].分析测试学报,2022,41(4):553-561.
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